Estimating storage life is almost impossible to do generically. It will always depend on the type of food, method of canning, whether or not preservatives were added or naturally occurring in the food, and the conditions the cans and jars are stored under.
Canning in oil (mostly for meats, but some veggies) can extend the shelf life almost indefinitely, as no aerobic bacteria can live in it. You can get anaerobic infections, which are more dangerous, botulism for example. But you tend to notice the smell when you open the can, and it's usually caused by a broken seal, which again, you should notice. I've eaten 70 year old pork preserved this way, and it was fine. I've heard of people eating other things that were 200-300 years old. Vegetables in oil take on the consistency of rubber after about 5 years, but preserve very well in the short term.
Things canned in water should be pasteurized or salted. 5-10 years is common for meats and veggies, but younger will always taste better.
Things preserved in honey (fruits usually, sometimes fish and pork) will essentially last forever as long as the seal is good. If there's oxygen in the jar, it will harden, so a perfect seal is ideal.
Preserves made with pectin (either added or naturally occurring in the fruit) like jams, jellies, and marmalade are good for a year or two, but the taste changes over time. It will get to the point where you don't want to eat it long before it gets so you can't eat it.
Preserved in alcohol, most things will make it to the 5 year mark. After that, they tend to disintegrate. Beets in brandy is a common example. They're good, but turn to paste after a while. Raw asparagus in gin however gets better with age, like a martini-pickle. Tough veggies (lots of cellulose) do well with the tenderizing effects, anything soft will not over the long term.
Tomato sauces are a favorite for home canners. They have one of the shortest shelf lives. It's great if you grow a lot of tomatoes, but not viable for long-term preservation. Use in the first year if you can, year 2 should be okay, but I don't ever keep them longer than that.
Sealing with paraffin wax will drastically improve the shelf life, since there's no air inside the can at all, and you have a back-up seal. Just make sure the lid is the widest part so the wax will lift out of the jar without having to be broken apart.
TwoBluesMama is right about storing on their side. If you want to do that, use cork seals that sponge up the moisture and distribute it. They're hard to find these days, and expensive, but they work very well. For the difference in the seal price however, it's cheaper to buy the food from the store.