Author Topic: smoke masks/hoods  (Read 9958 times)

Offline Dainty

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smoke masks/hoods
« on: August 27, 2010, 10:01:43 PM »
I did a search for this topic, and the most relevant result was shadowalker's excellent post here pointing out that fires are a much more likely threat than bio/chemical attacks, the deaths from fires mostly happened due to smoke inhalation/carbon monoxide poisoning, and that gas masks or dust masks are not an adequate defense.

I had suspected as much, which is why I've been researching smoke masks/hoods. I'm curious to know what those more knowledgeable than I recommend.

The Xcaper mask is what I currently have my eye on, since it looks small enough to fit in your pocket and apparently filters out 100% of toxic gasses from smoke (including carbon monoxide) as well as 95% particulates, while still (apparently) being small enough to fit in your pocket. It seems to me that the ability to keep a mask on your person could be the difference between life and death. As an added bonus, it would appear it also works in a situation of carbon monoxide poisoning--though I haven't seen it advertised as such. Those goggles also look pretty compact...

Anyway, I'm curious to know if there are better options out there that I'm missing, and what everyone else's thoughts are on the subject of smoke masks/hoods.

Offline firetoad

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Re: smoke masks/hoods
« Reply #1 on: August 27, 2010, 10:36:13 PM »
I haven't done any personal study of the mask that you listed.

Several things to keep in mind regarding the use of the mask that you listed:

  • In an oxygen depleted environment, as can be found in active fire environments inside of a structure, the mask will not provide for replacement of depleted oxygen.
  • While efficiencies of mask materials are typically high, the lack of a solid facial seal on masks such as the "dust mask"-style still allows a quantity of toxins, particulates, etc. through one's blowholes.
  • The mask will not counteract elevated temperatures of gases in an active fire environment inside of a structure.  "Superheated" gases are also a cause of fire-related fatalities along side of smoke inhalation and burns.

The above are all some of the reasons that firefighters enter structures involved in a fire with full mask SCBA's besides just the smoke, toxins and particulates in the air.  In a fire incident, time is your greatest enemy.  The window of opportunity for escape from a structure fire can close rather quickly.  Taking the time donning a mask, could allow this window of opportunity for escape to close.

Please don't take my points above as naysaying what you have presented.  I am just offering some items to consider. 
« Last Edit: November 02, 2018, 07:23:48 PM by firetoad »

Offline Dainty

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Re: smoke masks/hoods
« Reply #2 on: August 27, 2010, 10:49:27 PM »
Your input is greatly appreciated, firetoad.  :)

Am I reading you correctly that immediate escape sans mask, if possible, should be the first response, but if not possible it might be worth the time to don a mask, if you have one, while still searching for an escape route?

The Xcaper mask contains a gel that makes it wet to the touch....would that help mitigate some of the problems with sealing to the face and the superheated gases? They say tests have proven it doesn't steam, so at least steam burns doesn't appear to be an issue, but then again, I'm not an expert in interpreting tests and results.

Offline soupbone

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Re: smoke masks/hoods
« Reply #3 on: August 28, 2010, 10:24:46 AM »
First of all, Dainty, the middle of a fire is no time to be "searching for an escape route". The minute you walk into a room, you should check for a way out, or alternate ways out. This quickly becomes a habit, and you don't actually think about it, you just do it.

Secondly, all of the escape masks that I've seen are full-face air filtration respirators. I know of no air filtration respirator that filters out carbon monoxide, in spite of advertiser's claims. If, God forbid, you ever find yourself in that type of situation, GET DOWN and GET OUT! In a typical room fire, the temperature difference between your head and your feet can be several thousand degrees. Standing upright will cook your lungs. And when I say get down, I don't mean hunch over. PUT YOUR NOSE ON THE FLOOR.  There is usually a couple of inches of cool, breathable air at floor level that will help you to get out.

Shadowwalker is absolutely correct in saying that fire is a greater threat than a B/C attack. This is true even in a SHTF scenario. The zombies are more likely to try to burn you out than use anthrax or Sarin. One thing you may want to consider is to install an outside type faucet on each floor of your home. This and 50' of good garden hose, will allow you to fight SMALL fires a lot more effectively than by using any kind of fire extinguisher.

If you feel you really must get an escape mask, get one from a company that specializes in OSHA and MSHA approved equipment. If I remember correctly, North makes a good escape mask with a changeable NATO thread canister filter. It isn't cheap, but......

I'm sorry if this response is kind of curt, but I've seen too many unnecessary deaths caused by people trying to fight or escape from fires.

soupbone

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Re: smoke masks/hoods
« Reply #4 on: August 28, 2010, 02:35:38 PM »
I think this product would be perfect to keep in your car.  You see on the new all the time, roads being shut down because the wind changed and blew forest fire smoke across the road.  Imagine you or your family traveling on that road when the smoke comes.

Here's some more info from Xcaper's FAQ page.


Q:
 How is smoke and gas filtered by the Xcaper Smoke Filter?
 
A:
 The Xcaper Smoke Filter is based on the patented Whiffs filtration technology. It is the world’s first and only moist filter.  The proprietary all natural gel used in the Xcaper Smoke Filter absorbs and neutralizes vapors and gasses.  The positively charged particulate matter is captured by the negatively charged beads.   
 
 
 Q:
 What particulate and gases will the Xcaper filter system filter?
 
A:
 The Xcaper filter will capture smoke, dust, airborne fiber and other particulate matter down to about 1/3 microns. It will also filter water-soluble gases known as anhydrites to about 95%. It also filters other dangerous gases commonly found in air in and around a fire such as acrolein, hydrogen cyanide, hydrochloric acid and chlorine to name a few. The filter also neutralizes in excess of 90% of carbon monoxide.
 

Q:
 Won’t the Styrene beads melt or off gas at high temperatures?
 
A:
 Yes they will off gas, but at 810° F/432° C. Therefore, if the beads are off gassing, the user has a much greater problem, this means that the user would have to literally be on fire.
 


Offline soupbone

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Re: smoke masks/hoods
« Reply #5 on: August 28, 2010, 05:04:09 PM »
Again, is it OSHA or Mine Safety and Health Administration approved? Does the company make anything that is OSHA or MSHA approved? Furthermore, I would not get anything without eye protection, e.g. a full face respirator.

Testimonials from small fire departments or "test results" from unknown sources don't cut it.

If you must get something like this, get it from someone who makes OSHA/MSHA approved equipment.

soupbone

Offline Pathfinder

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Re: smoke masks/hoods
« Reply #6 on: August 28, 2010, 06:19:50 PM »
Again, is it OSHA or Mine Safety and Health Administration approved? Does the company make anything that is OSHA or MSHA approved? Furthermore, I would not get anything without eye protection, e.g. a full face respirator.

Testimonials from small fire departments or "test results" from unknown sources don't cut it.

If you must get something like this, get it from someone who makes OSHA/MSHA approved equipment.

soupbone

Good points. Here's what their certifications page says. ISO9000 is a manufacturing quality certification, along the lines of how do we know what we know. Has nothing to do with how well the product meets the intended needs. OH, and they apparently do not have a spell checker for their websites!   ;D

"Certifications

ISO 9001:2000 Certified

All of Xcaper's products are manufactured to be the highest quality possible. Our manufacturing facilities and procedures meet or exceed all the requirements for Business and Quality Management Systems' ISO certification.
 

Navy Safety and Survivability Office

The Xcaper Civilian Smoke Mask was tested by the Navy Safety and Surbvivability (sic) Office and recommended for use in Navy Facilities and Department of Defense Office Environments."

Offline soupbone

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Re: smoke masks/hoods
« Reply #7 on: August 28, 2010, 07:49:39 PM »
Pathfinder,

I could not find any reference to this product either with advanced search on navy.mil or the Safety and Survivability Office site. Any further info would be greatly appreciated. Pending that info, I will have to stick with my OSHA/MSHA posts.

I'm not trying to be obnoxious, its just that I don't want to see anyone taken advantage of, especially when it comes to life safety equipment.

sb

Offline firetoad

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Re: smoke masks/hoods
« Reply #8 on: August 28, 2010, 08:55:43 PM »
Pathfinder,

I could not find any reference to this product either with advanced search on navy.mil or the Safety and Survivability Office site. Any further info would be greatly appreciated. Pending that info, I will have to stick with my OSHA/MSHA posts.

I'm not trying to be obnoxious, its just that I don't want to see anyone taken advantage of, especially when it comes to life safety equipment.

sb

+1 to that sb!

Offline Dainty

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Re: smoke masks/hoods
« Reply #9 on: August 28, 2010, 10:55:35 PM »
Thank you for all your replies. I appreciate your attention to safety and passion to make sure that no one is relying on snake oil to save their life.

First of all, I'm not married to this mask. :P Essex smoke hoods look like they might provide much better protection, providing oxygen and using a carbon dioxide scrubber, and apparently it's what is stored on airplanes so that flight attendants can safely stay and assist others out in the case of a fire. But I haven't been able to research the subject nearly as thoroughly as I would like, that's why I was hoping you all could provide useful information.

My lungs are unusually sensitive to airborne toxins, which is the main reason I feel some sort of inhalant protection is especially important for me in the case of a fire. I am also disabled, so escaping would not be accomplished as quickly as it would be for nondisabled persons. Furthermore, in my place of residence the escape route would be through a window, which I am capable of doing, however it does mean lifting my head from the floor to do it, and it doesn't seem wise to bet my life on how long I can hold my breath.

From the responses so far it seems that smoke masks or smoke hoods don't play a part in your emergency preparations, so I guess that answers my inquiry.

Offline soupbone

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Re: smoke masks/hoods
« Reply #10 on: August 29, 2010, 08:05:16 AM »
Dainty,

I see why you are concerned, and in your case, an escape hood might not be such a bad idea. Again, pick carefully. Can you see the difference between the Essex hood and the Xcaper? The Essex, North and others cover the entire head, protecting the face, hair, etc. They have a face piece that allows for a better seal for efficient filtering of air, and a serious harness to keep the thing in place. Also, in a brief scan of the Essex website, I found NO claims about "filtering out" CO. Also, if they claim "approved by" or "used by" the Department of Defense, look for an NSN Number. The NSN - National Stock Number - is kind of a back door approval. It means the government is actually stocking / using / approving for purchase the item in question. Everything from paper clips to nuclear warheads has an NSN.

Look around before you make a decision to purchase. As I said earlier, I, personally, would feel more comfortable with an escape hood coming from a manufacturer who makes approved respirators - they have a reputation to uphold, and marketing a POS could hurt them industry wide.

For AIR FILTRATION RESPIRATORS:
Get two. These things come in sealed bags and do have a shelf life. The useful life is dramatically shortened if you open the packaging. Why two? Use one to practice with. The absolute worst time to fumble with an unfamiliar head harness is in the heat of a fire - no pun intended. See if the manufacturer has a practice unit available. this could save you some money.

For SELF CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUSES, SCBAs:
These provide you with a self-contained air supply, usually by using a walk-around bottle or other air tank. They are a lot bulkier, much more expensive (usually) and require additional training and maintenance. I have never been in the fire service, or used SCBAs, so I am not qualified to give an opinion about them. My background is in NBC Warfare (fitting, testing, maintaining and using air filtration respirators) and Saferty Management (managing life-safety systems, safety training for senior citizens / handicapped). Perhaps firetoad can point you in the right direction there.

I would also consider getting a locator beacon. These are small horn/strobe units that clip on to you and assist rescuers to locate you in a smoke filled environment.

Everything else I've said, though, about getting out and getting down still holds.

sb

Offline Dainty

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Re: smoke masks/hoods
« Reply #11 on: August 30, 2010, 05:55:59 AM »
soupbone,

Of course I see the difference between the Essex hood and the Xcaper mask. And of course the Essex website doesn't claim to "filter out" CO because it's a SCBA. In the FAQ's it does claim protection against CO.

That's helpful to know about NSN numbers, thanks. I wasn't aware of that.

The main reason I'm not dismissing the Xcaper yet is because it's small enough to keep on me at all times. True, a hood provides much more protection, but if it's in the other room, or worse back at home while I'm out and about that won't do me much good. Are there any very compact, lightweight smoke hoods out there?

I'm scratching my head on your comment "I know of no air filtration respirator that filters out carbon monoxide" because the claim is made by many manufacturers for their hoods (ASE30, Resmar Ltd, Safelincs, and others I don't care to list here....in fact, I was only able to find one that didn't claim to filter out CO, and that one had no information on filtering gasses whatsoever. As you mentioned, manufacturers can claim whatever they want, but Google searches on "carbon monoxide filtration false advertising" and "carbon monoxide filter scam" come up empty. If indeed there's no such thing as a respirator that filters out carbon monoxide then everyone is really being thrown for a loop. Do you have some links I could read on the subject?

I'd be interested to know of any "approved" smoke hoods. The iEvac was the only one I could find that even mentions OSHA, but doesn't say it's "approved". Searches for MSHA on the same page as smoke hoods turned up empty. Either I'm really bad at research or "approved" options are slim to nil. Any suggestions?

Offline soupbone

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Re: smoke masks/hoods
« Reply #12 on: August 30, 2010, 10:36:11 AM »
I'm sorry, Dainty, I didn't mean to sound insulting with  my "can you see the difference..." comment. I should have phrased it better.

I am going to stick by my CO comments, though. I could not find independent confirmation by "authorities having jurisdiction", just advertisements, etc. that they work on CO. I have a call in to NIOSH/CDC requesting a recommendation for an air filtration respirator that filters out or neutralizes CO; as soon as I hear anything, I'll post it. In the mean time, you might want to check out the Lab Safety Supply web site. They have a good selection of masks and escape systems from long time manufacturers, and are a reputable company. You may want to give them a call and see what they recommend. The number is on their web site.

I understand the need to have something you can keep with you - the Xcaper - but you really need to protect your eyes and other exposed skin/hair. We live in a world of plastics, and some, such as PVC, when burned liberate chlorine gas. You may just have to "bite the bullet" when it comes to size, in order to get the protection that you need. I'm sitting here looking at an MSA Response Escape Hood with Canister as I write this. I have this one mushed down to about 5" X 6". New, they come in a sealed bag, so the dimensions are larger. And you can't take them out of the bag until they are ready to be used because the canisters degrade rather quickly when exposed to air. The canisters on our MCU - 2P masks had to be changed every two weeks when installed. SCBA units are even bulkier, in fact, many come with wall mounts.

I don't envy the position that you are in and wish I could give you a definitive answer, but I can't. I can only suggest that you stick with major respirator companies - ones that have been in the respirator business for decades. As soon as I hear something from NIOSH / CDC, I'll let you know.

sb

Offline Dainty

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Re: smoke masks/hoods
« Reply #13 on: August 31, 2010, 09:39:24 AM »
I look forward to hearing from you in regards to a response from NIOSH/CDC; thank you for going through the trouble to look into that for me.

Offline soupbone

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Re: smoke masks/hoods
« Reply #14 on: October 04, 2010, 10:52:11 AM »
Dainty,

How have you been? Well, I hope. It has been some time since we last spoke, but I haven't forgotten what I said I would do. Well, this morning I got a phone call from NIOSH - the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health -  the "Authority Having Jurisdiction" in matters of breathing protection. It was as I remembered.

NIOSH does not recommend ANY air filtration respirator for protection against Carbon Monoxide. For protection against CO, you will need a supplied air respirator.

I don't know why, or how the manufacturers get away with this kind of advertising, which is patently false, and I hope that you have not made a purchase based on the manufacturer's claims. Let me know how it turned out for you, and please feel free to contact me if I can be of further assistance.

Regards,

soup

Offline Fyrediver

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Re: smoke masks/hoods
« Reply #15 on: October 04, 2010, 10:56:43 PM »
Not to be completely disagreeable, but I feel that something needs to be clarified. 

NIOSH, OSHA, and MSHA have jurisdiction over respirators to be used in a workplace for protection from workplace hazards during a shift.  These agencies won't recommend an air purifying respirator (APR) for CO because the gas does not meet the requirements for filter use in a workplace (unknown concentration, no warning properties that the filter is "full," etc). 

The masks that are being discussed are for escape purposes only, not for wear during an 8 hour shift while at work. 

The Xcaper claims to be used by firefighters during overhaul of structural fires.  While some agencies may allow this, it is clearly a violation of the OSHA regulations within the US due to the issues I mentioned above.  However, looking at their website they are testing against British standards so maybe firefighters outside the US are wearing them. 

I did take the time to read the lab papers on the Xcaper and it appears impressive.  Their website says it's a new filtering gel medium instead of dry carbon.  The tests were run over a 15 minute period.  If you're still in the affected area of the fire structure after that long you're probably not going to be leaving under your own power . . . 

Additionally, we've found that cyanide (HCN) gas is far more toxic and hazardous than carbon monoxide in structural fires.

By the way, the ISO9001 certification standard has NOTHING to do with the filter's ability.  It is merely the management system that the company follows.

I would suggest that one's first priorities should be well maintained smoke alarms and escape as quickly as possible from a known, pre-scouted escape route.  If you get early detection then you won't need a mask as the fire will be in it's initial stages.  However, if you have delayed notification and the fire has progressed, I think a mask/filter system would be better than nothing, especially if you're staying low out of the superheated gas layer.
 

Offline Dainty

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Re: smoke masks/hoods
« Reply #16 on: October 05, 2010, 03:47:48 AM »
Soup,

Thank you for your concern and for following up. The more information, the better.

I'm still perplexed about the Carbon Monoxide issue, as it seems to be widely accepted over various respiratory protection websites that there is a way to make respirators capable of adsorbing CO and thus providing some protection from it, but since smoke has other problems besides CO I'll just focus on the issue of smoke protection as a whole.

I've decided to start with the more common occurrence of needing to protect my lungs from unspecified chemical vapors and I have a 3M respirator with vapor cartridges coming in the mail. I can generally avoid these exposures, but it's limiting my life and isn't exactly a solid survival strategy so I figure this respirator is a good start. Though it isn't designed to handle smoke it seems that it should be more effective than an improvised covering, and my window takes two hands to open so the hands-free nature of an actual respirator is a big improvement over my current non-setup. Nevertheless I do realize that it isn't ideal, and in the event of a fire if I can escape quickly without slowing down to put on the mask then that's definitely what I'd do.

Thank you, again.

Dainty,

How have you been? Well, I hope. It has been some time since we last spoke, but I haven't forgotten what I said I would do. Well, this morning I got a phone call from NIOSH - the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health -  the "Authority Having Jurisdiction" in matters of breathing protection. It was as I remembered.

NIOSH does not recommend ANY air filtration respirator for protection against Carbon Monoxide. For protection against CO, you will need a supplied air respirator.

I don't know why, or how the manufacturers get away with this kind of advertising, which is patently false, and I hope that you have not made a purchase based on the manufacturer's claims. Let me know how it turned out for you, and please feel free to contact me if I can be of further assistance.

Regards,

soup

Offline Dainty

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Re: smoke masks/hoods
« Reply #17 on: October 05, 2010, 10:11:39 AM »
Fyre,

Thanks for clarifying that and for looking into the Xcaper's claims. I'm always learning something new.

Not to be completely disagreeable, but I feel that something needs to be clarified. 

NIOSH, OSHA, and MSHA have jurisdiction over respirators to be used in a workplace for protection from workplace hazards during a shift.  These agencies won't recommend an air purifying respirator (APR) for CO because the gas does not meet the requirements for filter use in a workplace (unknown concentration, no warning properties that the filter is "full," etc). 

The masks that are being discussed are for escape purposes only, not for wear during an 8 hour shift while at work. 

The Xcaper claims to be used by firefighters during overhaul of structural fires.  While some agencies may allow this, it is clearly a violation of the OSHA regulations within the US due to the issues I mentioned above.  However, looking at their website they are testing against British standards so maybe firefighters outside the US are wearing them. 

I did take the time to read the lab papers on the Xcaper and it appears impressive.  Their website says it's a new filtering gel medium instead of dry carbon.  The tests were run over a 15 minute period.  If you're still in the affected area of the fire structure after that long you're probably not going to be leaving under your own power . . . 

Additionally, we've found that cyanide (HCN) gas is far more toxic and hazardous than carbon monoxide in structural fires.

By the way, the ISO9001 certification standard has NOTHING to do with the filter's ability.  It is merely the management system that the company follows.

I would suggest that one's first priorities should be well maintained smoke alarms and escape as quickly as possible from a known, pre-scouted escape route.  If you get early detection then you won't need a mask as the fire will be in it's initial stages.  However, if you have delayed notification and the fire has progressed, I think a mask/filter system would be better than nothing, especially if you're staying low out of the superheated gas layer.
 


Offline soupbone

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Re: smoke masks/hoods
« Reply #18 on: October 08, 2010, 11:15:01 PM »
Fyre -

What disagreeable? Our purpose here is to get information to Dainty that she can use and not get snookered by fancy advertising.

"NIOSH, OSHA, and MSHA have jurisdiction over respirators to be used in a workplace for protection from workplace hazards during a shift.  These agencies won't recommend an air purifying respirator (APR) for CO because the gas does not meet the requirements for filter use in a workplace (unknown concentration, no warning properties that the filter is "full," etc). 

The masks that are being discussed are for escape purposes only, not for wear during an 8 hour shift while at work."

You are absolutely correct in the above quote. As a matter of fact, to the best of my knowledge, there are no standards governing escape masks/hoods. I think the National Fire Protection Assoc. is working on it, but I don't think they have published yet. Given that, I went to the next best source, or set of standards, in this case NIOSH. 

"I would suggest that one's first priorities should be well maintained smoke alarms and escape as quickly as possible from a known, pre-scouted escape route.  If you get early detection then you won't need a mask as the fire will be in it's initial stages.  However, if you have delayed notification and the fire has progressed, I think a mask/filter system would be better than nothing, especially if you're staying low out of the superheated gas layer."

Again, you are spot on, especially given Dainty's sensitivities. The challenge is to find something that works. This is why I would avoid manufacturers who do not have a track record in the respirator industry. I have seen some of these products that came on the market, especially after 9-11, and was less than impressed.

BTW, the overhaul phase of a structure fire occurs after the fire is out. The main problem then is dust or fine particulates rather than gasses and combustion byproducts. A quality dust mask, properly fitted would have worked just as well, and probably been a lot less expensive. This  strikes me as another "ISO 9001Certified" kind of claim - looks impressive but means nothing.


soup


Offline Fyrediver

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Re: smoke masks/hoods
« Reply #19 on: December 13, 2010, 10:04:45 PM »
Haven't looked at this post in a long time but when I did I felt I had to clarify one thing.

You are correct in that "Overhaul" are the activities immediately following extinguishment of the fire.  This is when walls/ceiling are opened to ensure the fire hasn't spread unseen and any hot spots are cooled to ensure the fire doesn't rekindle.  Some debris is also removed at this time.  However, the main safety issue IS the gaseous combustion byproducts not dust.

What has been found (by NIOSH, NFA, USFA, etc) is that the concentration of carcinogens, HCN, CO, etc remains extremely high during this phase of operation, far higher than anyone ever expected.  The rubble pile is still very hot and is off gassing for several hours following extinguishment.  In fact, it's been determined that our bunker gear we wear into a fire is actually off gassing absorbed chemicals and is covered in a film of carcinogens after an event.  Current standards call for washing/deconning one's gear after every fire to reduce carcinogen exposure from these toxins. 

Offline soupbone

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Re: smoke masks/hoods
« Reply #20 on: December 14, 2010, 04:55:01 PM »
Fyrediver, I stand corrected.

Perhaps it was this that caused the horrid deaths of firefighters just after WWII and before SCBA became standard - guy's OK then two or three days later, they die. That was back when REAL firemen ate smoke, and didn't use those sissy respirators.

IIRC, autopsies showed the victim's lungs were, like, coated on the inside from all of the new plastics and man-made materials that got inhaled as gasses then condensed.

Be that as it may, I would still stick with a respirator from a well known company. What cartridges would you reccomend?

If we don't touch base, have a Merry Christmas, or better yet a quiet one - stay safe!

soup

Offline Fyrediver

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Re: smoke masks/hoods
« Reply #21 on: December 14, 2010, 10:14:48 PM »
Soupbone,

As you've pointed out there are no US standards for this application and an Air Purifying Respirator won't do anything in an oxygen deficient atmosphere. 

If I HAD to choose, I'd go with an Acid Gas/Organic Vapor/Particulate stack and use it only for evacuation rather than as a working respirator.  The cartridges have to be new though or they'll absorb and adsorb materials from the air and be less effective, or useless, when you use it.  Perhaps one could put the cartridges on and then seal it in nitrogen or vacuum sealed to ensure the cartridges don't fill up on the shelf.  Tear open the package and the cartridges are in place. 

I think the smoke hoods provide some respiratory protection and allow one to see during an escape but they won't provide protection from everything and certainly not for long. 

This escape hood does look useful and it's from one of the world leaders in respiratory protection and gas monitoring gear not some off the wall company:  http://www.draeger.com/US/en_US/products/personal_protection/escape/filter/com_Parat_C.jsp